当前位置:生物帮 > 期刊文章 > PNAS > 正文

PNAS:北京师范大学神经科学新进展

相关专题:
摘要 : 近日,北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室的研究人员在之前研究的基础上发现人际交往过程中,比较于非领导者之间的神经同步,领导者与非领导者之间的神经同步水平要更高,这一研究成果公布在《美国国家科学院院刊》(PNAS)杂志上。

来自北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室的研究人员发表了题为“Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization”的文章,在之前研究的基础上发现人际交往过程中,比较于非领导者之间的神经同步,领导者与非领导者之间的神经同步水平要更高,这一研究成果公布在《美国国家科学院院刊》(PNAS)杂志上。领导这一研究的是北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室卢春明博士,其研究组长期从事语言交流的认知神经机制研究,曾从遗传、脑以及行为三个方面深入了解口吃的发生和康复/持续机制。

我们的大脑在支配人际交往过程中扮演了重要的角色,在过去的10年里,在功能性核磁共振成像相关的技术的帮助下,神经学科学家们向我们展示了大脑中什么能促进我们的交往能力,在面对各种变化的情况下,我们大脑如何应对。(功能性核磁共振成像技术测量大脑的血流量。如果我们使用某个大脑区域,那么这块区域的血流量就会增加。)

北师大彭聃龄教授在自己的博客中提到,曾有研究人员发现让一个英语母语者作为说话者,在磁共振扫描仪(MRI)里讲述了自己有过的一段经历,时间为15分钟,在录音的同时,记录了他的脑活动。然后将这段录音分别播放给12名英语母语者听,并记录这些人在听录音时的脑活动。结果发现,说话者和听话者在几个经典语言脑区出现了脑活动的同步,这种同步性还与听话者对录音的理解成绩呈显著的正相关,也就是说,听话者和说话者脑活动的同步性越强,他对说话者所讲述的内容就理解得越好。

同时此前卢春明博士的研究也曾采用近红外光学成像技术对在口语交流过程中两个人的脑功能同步性进行了考察,在这些研究的基础上,最新研究对11个3人团体展开了调查分析,发现领导者所表现出的与追随者之间的神经活动同步高于追随者与追随者之间的神经活动的同步,而同步的程度与领导者的交流技巧而非交流频率更加有关。这从一个侧面再次反应了神经同步在人际交往过程中的重要作用,具有重要的理论意义和潜在的应用价值。

对于自闭症患者来说,人际交往障碍是一个重要表现,曾有研究表明自闭症儿童在很小的时候大脑活动就表现出不同步,这项研究也是运用磁共振检查了儿童睡眠时的大脑,发现自闭症儿童某些类型的神经活动是混乱的,而正常儿童和有语言发展障碍的儿童却不是这样。

原文链接:Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization

The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader–follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower–follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders’ communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

作者:Jing Jiang 点击:

    热门文章TOP