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PNAS:蝙蝠如何对感觉反馈的变化做出反应

标签: 蝙蝠 感觉反馈
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摘要 : 一项研究发现,蝙蝠使用听觉和躯体感觉反馈调控猎物的捕获,这为极端迅速的判断过程提供了一个窗口。

PNAS:蝙蝠如何对感觉反馈的变化做出反应

一项研究发现,蝙蝠使用听觉和躯体感觉反馈调控猎物的捕获,这为极端迅速的判断过程提供了一个窗口。Annemarie Surlykke及其同事研究了一种尚未被理解的现象,即利用回声定位的蝙蝠与齿鲸在即将捕获运动的猎物时发出的末期嗡嗡声。这组作者在实地实验和在一个飞行室里使用捕食水面或空气中的昆虫的水鼠耳蝠(Myotis daubentonii)研究了这种嗡嗡声。这组作者测量了蝙蝠飞向猎物时候的回声定位并且监测了捕捉行为,但是这组作者在预计捕获的6到240毫秒之前突然拿走了猎物。在空气中和在水上,蝙蝠成功地调整了回声定位,最迟在预计捕获前的100毫秒的时候缩短了它们的嗡嗡声。在水上,当猎物在之后被拿走的时候,蝙蝠表现出了完整的捕获行为,但是当蝙蝠在空气中捕获猎物的时候,它们放弃了捕获行为,不论这组作者在多迟之后才拿走猎物,这很可能是由于这些蝙蝠失去了来自猎物的体感反馈。这组作者说,这些发现提示,蝙蝠的末期嗡嗡声具有可适应性,而且蝙蝠对感觉反馈的突然变化反应迅速。

原文链接:Fast sensory–motor reactions in echolocating bats to sudden changes during the final buzz and prey intercept

Echolocation is an active sense enABLing bats and toothed whales to orient in darkness through echo returns from their ultrasonic signals. Immediately before prey capture, both bats and whales emit a buzz with such high emission rates (≥180 Hz) and overall duration so short that its functional significance remains an enigma. To investigate sensory–motor control during the buzz of the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii, we removed prey, suspended in air or on water, before expected capture. The bats responded by shortening their echolocation buzz gradually; the earlier prey was removed down to approximately 100 ms (30 cm) before expected capture, after which the full buzz sequence was emitted both in air and over water. Bats trawling over water also performed the full capture behavior, but in-air capture motions were aborted, even at very late prey removals (<20 ms = 6 cm before expected contact). Thus, neither the buzz nor capture movements are stereotypical, but dynamically adapted based on sensory feedback. The results indicate that echolocation is controlled mainly by acoustic feedback, whereas capture movements are adjusted according to both acoustic and somatosensory feedback, suggesting separate (but coordinated) central motor control of the two behaviors based on multimodal input. Bat echolocation, especially the terminal buzz, provides a unIQue window to extremely fast decision processes in response to sensory feedback and modulation through attention in a naturally behaving animal.

作者:Cornelia Geberl 点击:

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